Download A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of by Pradyot Patnaik PDF

By Pradyot Patnaik

The definitive consultant to the harmful houses of chemical compounds

Correlating chemical constitution with toxicity to people and the surroundings, and the chemical constitution of compounds to their damaging houses, A entire advisor to the damaging houses of chemical compounds, 3rd Edition permits clients to evaluate the toxicity of a substance even if no experimental info exists. therefore, it bridges the distance among dangerous fabrics and chemistry. widely up-to-date and increased, this reference:

  • Examines organics, metals and inorganics, business solvents, universal gases, particulates, explosives, and radioactive ingredients, masking every little thing from toxicity and carcinogenicity to flammability and explosive reactivity to dealing with and disposal practices
  • Arranges dangerous chemical compounds in accordance with their chemical buildings and sensible teams for simple reference
  • Includes up to date info at the poisonous, flammable, and explosive houses of chemical substances
  • Covers extra metals within the chapters on poisonous and reactive metals
  • Updates the edge publicity limits within the place of work air for a few substances
  • Features the most recent info on commercial solvents and poisonous and flammable gases
  • Includes various tables, formulation, and a thesaurus for speedy reference

since it offers details that allows people with a chemistry history to accomplish checks with no earlier information, this entire reference appeals to chemists, chemical engineers, toxicologists, and forensic scientists, in addition to commercial hygienists, occupational physicians, Hazmat pros, and others in similar fields.

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Additional resources for A comprehensive guide to the hazardous properties of chemical substances

Sample text

Also, not all chemicals that have strong odors are hazardous. Nevertheless, it is an immediate firsthand indicator to identify the presence of certain hazardous substances in many dangerous situations, such as spillage, gas cylinder leak, or fire. Odors have been quantified in several different ways. The major definitions are 13 (1) threshold odor concentration (TOC), (2) odor recognition threshold, (3) threshold odor number (TON) and (4) odor index (OI). These terms are briefly explained below. The TOC may be defined as the absolute perception threshold (at which the odor is barely identifiable, but too faint); while the recognition threshold (100%) means the threshold concentration of the odorant whose odor may be defined (or accepted) by 100% odor panel as being representative odor of the substance being studied.

Such substances may transport across the tubular cells and are susceptible to bioactivation, forming toxic metabolites. Because of this, the kidney is another major target organ. Many substances are known to exhibit nephrotoxicity affecting specific parts of the kidney. 1 Common Hepatotoxicants and Liver Diseasesa Compounds/Compound Type Resulting Liver Diseaseb Acetaminophen Acetylaminofluorene Aflatoxin Aflatoxin B1 4-Aminosalicylic acid Allyl alcohol Beryllium Bromobenzene Carbamazepine (drug) Carbon tetrabromide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Chlorpromazine (drug) Colchicine (alkaloid) Cycasin Cycloheximide Diazepam (drug) Dimethylbenzanthracene Estradiol Ethanol Ethionine Halothane (anesthesia) Imipramine (drug) Isoniazid (drug) Mepazine Mestranol Nitrosamines, alkyl derivatives Papaverine (alkaloid) Phosphorus Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Promazine (drug) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids Puromycin Safrole Sulfanilamide Tannic acid Tetrachloroethylene Tetracycline Thioacetamide Trichloroethylene Urethane Valproic acid Vinyl chloride Necrosis Carcinogenesis Steatosis, necrosis Carcinogenesis Cholestasis, viral-like hepatitis Necrosis Necrosis Necrosis Cholestasis, viral-like hepatitis Necrosis Steatosis, necrosis, cirrhosis Steatosis, necrosis Cholestatis, viral-like hepatitis Viral-like hepatitis Carcinogenesis Steatosis Cholestasis Carcinogenesis Cholestasis Cirrhosis, steatosis Steatosis Viral-like hepatitis Viral-like hepatitis, cholestasis Viral-like hepatitis Cholestasis Cholestasis Steatosis, necrosis, carcinogenesis Viral-like hepatitis Steatosis, necrosis Carcinogenesis Cholestasis Necrosis, steatosis, carcinogenesis Steatosis Carcinogenesis Cholestasis Necrosis Steatosis, necrosis Steatosis Necrosis Steatosis, necrosis Carcinogenesis Steatosis Carcinogenesis a This is a partial listing of some common hepatotoxicants.

Among other toxicants, carbon tetrachloride and aflatoxins may induce cirrhosis. Many chemical carcinogens, such as dioxins, can induce cirrhosis. This chronic liver disease is often induced by the chemicals that also cause necrosis and steatosis. 27 Hepatitis is a disease caused by viruses and chemicals producing injury to the liver cells. Such cellular damage can be initiated by a number of mechanisms, such as inhibition of enzymes by reactive metabolites, depletion of cofactors, interaction with receptors, and alternation of cell membranes.

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