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By G.A. Somorjai, M.A. van Hove

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02 eV have X = 1 )k and can readily diffract from surfaces. A beam of atoms is chopped with a variable frequency chopper before striking the surface. This way, an alternating intensity beam signal is generated at the mass spectrometer detector, that is readily separated from the "noise" due to helium atoms in the background. There are three processes observed during the scattering of atomic beams 18) of helium that are displayed in Fig. 5. , the helium atoms scatter at an angle that is equal to the angle of incidence) (curve a).

At medium energies ion scattering gives additional information about surface composition, since backscattered ions lose an amount of energy that depends on the mass of the hit surface atom 17b). A general problem with ion scattering is that the thermal vibrations of the surface atoms complicate the interpretation. Sometimes computer simulations of the scattering are therefore made to sort out the structural from the thermal effects. 1 A in the determination of atomic positions are possible. As an example of such work, the clean Ni(110) surface has been studied with MEIS 17d), 34 4 Methods Sensitive to Atomic Geometry at Surfaces confirming the contraction of the topmost interlayer spacing observed by LEED.

The phase shifts are obtained by a numerical integration of the Schr6dinger equation with an atomic potential, that in turn has to be generated from first principles, including electrostatic and exchange-correlation effects in the electron-atom interaction, as well as the effects of neighboring atoms. tn practice the atomic scattering properties are modified by including a DebyeWaller factor that represents the effect of the thermal vibrations of the surface atoms: thus the temperature correction is applied at each scattering in each chain of scatterings.

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