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By Angela Terrill

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In most sentences the subject, and in some cases the object as well, is modified by one of these. For example see (11) above, also (20) below. In some cases they alone can carry the case marking of their noun phrase. They only appear with the case marked by /-gu/, either the dative or ergative: 15) rnari man yindami-gu this-ERG unda-liga kill-LIGA this man killed {the kangaroo) the white man killed the kangaroo 11) marl migulu yindami wandi yuri-gu man white man this dog meat-OAT the white man gave this dog some meat kill- oalu nulla-nulla-lNSTR man-ERG bird the Aboriginal man killed the bird with a nulla-nulla It is possible that the ergative marker appears only on the final element of the noun phrase in this dialect.

These clauses too have coreferential NP deletion. In Hale's (1976) terms then, Biri relative clauses are adjoined, not embedded. 80) oanhdharu bama where [murrioga man-ABSonce wuna-lba-1-dhana yinha-gu] live-CONT-PAST-3plS/A here-DAT where are the men who once lived here? 2 PURPOSIVE CLAUSES Purposive clauses are almost always syntactically subordinate to a preceding main clause. They consist of a verb and, depending on the transitivity of the verb, one or more noun 60 81) gani nearly gula-mi-la-oga bama [dhandari-lba-li ldli-NEARLY-3sgS/A-3sgO man-ABS stand-CONT-PAST 61 gunha-gu] there-OAT lsgS/A leave-FUT- lsgS/A camp-ABS sun-ABS yinda-lba-nha-la) it nearly killed the man who was standing there go down-CONT-FUT-3sgS/A I will leave the camp when the sun goes down 82) yinda oudya-oa-nda-oga bama 2sgS/A know-PRES-2sgS/A-3sgO man-ABS [gula-lba-li-oga wura yinha-gu] kili-CONT-PAST-3sg0 kangaroo-ABS there-OAT 86) do you know the man who killed the kangaroo?

The syntax of the language, but suggests rather that it is a result of direct translation of informant. 7 CONDITIONAL CLAUSES As with most of the clause types above, conditional clauses are not marked by any overt . th . means R th · a er, elf condinonallty must be inferred from the context. There is no fixed order for these clauses. 14 The structure of most of the complex clauses strongly parallels English clause structures. But Perhaps traditional Biri clause structure was like this; it is impossible to know.

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