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By Martin Albrow (auth.)
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Additional info for Bureaucracy
That he was able to do so without sense of paradox owed something at least to Michels, Weber's interest in bureaucracy certainly pre-dated the publication of Michels's Political Parties. ' But he knew Michels well, and they attended the same conferences and informal gatherings . In Michels's work he had a clear link, through Mosca, to the ninteenthcentury setting of the problem of the relation between bureaucracy and democracy, and, at the same time, an example of the attempt to treat the issue in a neutral and scientific way.
They are cultured (geistig), social beings, whose activity has a function within a cultural whole. '16 :::n the light ofthis, he added, socialists were on sound ground when they complained of 'bourgeois justice'. One of the clearest statements of the cultural limitations of administrative rationality is contained in the work of Reinhard Bendix. > In his Higher Civil Servants in American Society (1949) he argues against the belief that it is possible to adhere to a rule without the intrusion of general social and political values.
Officials are appointed on the basis of a contract. They are selected on the basis of a professional qualification, ideally substantiated by a diploma gained through examination. They have a money salary, and usually pension rights. The salary is graded according to position in the hierarchy. The officialcan always leave the post, andunder certain circumstances it may also be terminated. The official's post is his sole or major occupation. Max Weber: the limits on bureaucracy/45 8 9 10 There is a career structure, and promotion is possible either by seniority or merit, and according to the judgement of superiors.