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By J. P. Riley and R. Chester (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Chemical Oceanography
30. CHEMICAL DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS 31 Terrigenous silicate minerals are responsible for much of the minor element content of sediments. This is especially so in rapidly accumulating sediments. Thus, most of the variations in minor elements are governed by changes in terrigenous supply, and by dilution with silica and carbonates. In view of the reluctance of terrigenous silicates to alter appreciably during early diagenesis, as has been seen by the lack of change in major elements in sediment interstitial waters, it is probable that the terrigenous component plays only a small part in controlling changes in minor elements in interstitial waters.
The relatively high iodine concentrations in sediment interstitial waters ( ~ 1 -9 ppm) from southern parts of the Baltic Sea (Bojanowski and Paslawska, 1970) also imply a release of iodine from organic matter during sedi- 30. CHEMICAL DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS 33 FIG. 3 0 . 6 . , 1 9 7 0 ) . ment burial. In contrast, the I/C(org) ratios of surface sediments forming under reducing conditions show values one order of magnitude lower than those of oxidizing sediments, and during their burial the change in I/C(org) ratio is minimal (Price and Calvert, 1973).
Thus, concentrations of soluble iron (II) and manganese (II) will increase at the expense of Fe (III) and Μ η (IV). Their highest concentrations in sediment interstitial waters will be controlled by two factors. Firstly, by the solubility of their respective carbonates, or for Fe, and less so for Mn, by sulphide precipitation. Secondly, by an upward diffusion of ions out of the reduced zone, and their reprecipitation as 30. CHEMICAL DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS 37 Fe (III) and Μ η (IV) either at, or near, the sediment water interface or in the overlying sea water.