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By Immanuel Kant

This completely new translation of Critique of natural cause is the main actual and informative English translation ever produced of this epochal philosophical textual content. even though its uncomplicated, direct type will make it compatible for all new readers of Kant, the interpretation monitors a philosophical and textual sophistication that may enlighten Kant students in addition. This translation recreates so far as attainable a textual content with an identical interpretative nuances and richness because the unique.

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This is the principle that everything true of a substance is true in virtue of the inherent nature of that substance itself, so that what would ap­ pear to be real interactions between substances are only reflections of the harmonious plan God has chosen to follow as the creator of all sub­ stances in a world that is the best of all possible ones precisely because It is harmonious. " Kant used this principle to argue for the system of "physical Influx," which his teacher Martin Knutzen ( 1 7 1 3 - 1 7 5 1 ) had employed against the mon­ adology.

That would take at least two more decades to discover. Before leaving the Nova dilucidatio, however, we should also mention several points at which Kant still agreed with his predecessors, above all Leibniz, and that would only subsequently come in for serious criti­ cism. ^ At this stage, Kant recognized only the two traditional al­ ternatives of determinism, according to which any event, including a human action, is entirely determined by an antecedent sequence of events, which in the case of a human action may go all the way back to earlier involuntary events in the agent's life or even to events prior to that life, and indeterminism, according to which a free human choice is in no way determined by any prior history.

On the other hand, Kant refines and extends his own argument that the existence of God can be demon­ strated as an actual and necessary condition of the existence of any other possibility, an argument that appeals to the premise diat it would be Im­ possible to deny that anything is possible. From the concept of G o d 39 40 29 Introduction as the necessary ground of possibility, Kant then proceeds to derive tra­ ditional predicates of God such as uniqueness, simplicity immutability, and indeed even the claim that the necessary being is a mind.

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