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By M P M Reddy

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Thus TRMM together with DMSP provide coverage from a total of five satellites that measure microwave radiances at a number of frequencies. In order to translate the microwave radiances to rainfall rates, ground truth estimates of rainfall from rain gauge and radar are required. Such ground truth data are available in many land areas, and with a particularly high density in highly-populated places such as Japan, United States, Brazil and China. It is possible to use simple multiple regression techniques to relate these directly observed estimates of rain (from rain gauges and radar) to the brightness temperatures derived from microwave radiances measured at the different channels.

A similar exercise carried out over the global tropical belt shows that daily as well as monthly mean charts both carry much the same information. The subtropical highs, the equatorial troughs, the monsoon troughs, the trades of the two hemispheres are common in both the daily and the monthly mean charts. Another way of expressing this is that climatological means carry much of the variance of the total motion field in the tropics. Thus an understanding of the maintenance of the time averaged zonally asymmetric features of the tropics is important.

By its nature this anticyclone is a thermal high. Below this traversing high resides the low-level monsoon convection and associated heavy rain. The monsoon rain along the upper anticyclone path can be as large as 200 in. per month. The tropospheric averaged temperatures over this region are warmer than the surroundings due to the large latent heat release of the precipitating systems. The northward propagating anticyclone of the upper troposphere temporarily loses its identity as it approaches and traverses across the equatorial latitudes.

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